R10: Ocean Observations

How can ocean observations be improved?

Ocean Observations brings together researchers from chemical and physical oceanography, informatics, geochemistry, geology, law and economics to develop and promote elements needed to enhance global and regional sustained ocean observations – figuratively speaking to ‘take the pulse of the oceans’.


The provision of routine and sustained global, regional and local information on the marine environment is not sufficient to meet society’s needs for describing, understanding and forecasting natural marine variability from days to decades, marine responses to climate change (e.g., ocean warming, acidification, and deoxygenation) and other human impacts (loss of biodiversity, pollution), sustainable management of living marine resources (fish stocks) and marine protection. In order to fulfill society’s mandate for ocean observations (e.g. OceanObs‘09, 2010), advanced concepts and routines have to be developed, tested and implemented to ensure sensors efficiently deliver the required information via simulated ocean models. Further the systematic design of global, regional and local ocean observation systems under scientific, technical, legal, and economic constraints need to be addressed.


  • ‘From Sensor to information’ addresses issues concerned with observation data processing toward specific projects, such as deep ocean heat content or virtual seafloor reconstruction.
  • ‘Improving marine observation networks’ is concerned with system design to optimally meet various scientific requirements with regard to capability, logistical effort, costs and legal and political constraints.
  • Integrated multidisciplinary ocean observations in small island states (e.g. Cape Verde)

Seamless Data Workflows for the Cape Verde Ocean Observatory
The Cape Verde Ocean Observatory (CVOO) collects various types of observation data, such as mooring and satellite data. The data is stored and managed in Kiel's Ocean Science Information System, as part of the Kiel Data Management Infrastructure. The research question to be addressed is to investigate all data workflows in CVOO’s context, starting with mobile data acquisition, data quality assurance, data processing for modeling towards data archival and publication.

A more specific research question is how to automatically collect provenance information while the data workflows are executed. The goal is to relieve the scientists from the tedious tasks of the data management, in order to allow to focus the interesting parts of data handling and data analysis.


Arevalo-Martinez, D. L., Kock, A., Steinhoff, T., Brandt, P., Dengler, M., Fischer, T., Körtzinger, A. and Bange, H. W. (2017) Nitrous oxide during the onset of the Atlantic Cold Tongue Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, 122 (1). pp. 171-184. DOI 10.1002/2016JC012238.

Schütte, F., Karstensen, J., Krahmann, G., Hauss, H., Fiedler, B., Brandt, P., Visbeck, M. and Körtzinger, A. (2016) Characterization of "dead-zone" eddies in the tropical Northeast Atlantic Ocean Biogeosciences (BG), 13 . pp. 5865-5881. DOI 10.5194/bg-13-5865-2016.

Becker, M., Andersen, N., Erlenkeuser, H., Humphreys, M. P., Tanhua, T. and Körtzinger, A. (2016) An Internally Consistent Dataset of delta13C-DIC in the North Atlantic Ocean - NAC13v1 Earth System Science Data, 8 . pp. 559-570. DOI 10.5194/essd-8-559-2016.

Hoving, H. J. T. and Robison, B. H. (2016) Deep-sea in situ observations of gonatid squid and their prey reveal high occurrence of cannibalism Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers, 116 . pp. 94-98. DOI 10.1016/j.dsr.2016.08.001.

Schuerch, M., Scholten, J., Carretero, S., García-Rodríguez, F., Kumbier, K., Baechtiger, M. and Liebetrau, V. (2016) The effect of long-term and decadal climate and hydrology variations on estuarine marsh dynamics: An identifying case study from the Río de la Plata Geomorphology, 269 . pp. 122-132. DOI 10.1016/j.geomorph.2016.06.029.

Hoving, H. J. T., Arkhipkin, A. I., Laptikhovsky, V. V. and Marian, J. E. A. R. (2016) Mating tactics in the sub-Antarctic deep-sea squid Onykia ingens (Cephalopoda: Onychoteuthidae) Polar Biology, 39 (7). pp. 1319-1328. DOI 10.1007/s00300-015-1856-z.

Jegen, M., Avdeeva, A., Berndt, C., Franz, G., Heincke, B., Hölz, S., Neska, A., Marti, A., Planert, L., Chen, J., Kopp, H., Baba, K., Ritter, O., Weckmann, U., Meqbel, N. and Behrmann, J. (2016) 3-D Magnetotelluric Image of Offshore Magmatism at the Walvis Ridge and Rift Basin Tectonophysics, 683 . pp. 98-108. DOI 10.1016/j.tecto.2016.06.016.

Böning, C. W., Behrens, E., Biastoch, A., Getzlaff, K. and Bamber, J. L. (2016) Emerging impact of Greenland meltwater on deepwater formation in the North Atlantic Ocean Nature Geoscience, 9 (7). pp. 523-527. DOI 10.1038/ngeo2740.

Rickels, W., Dovern, J., Hoffmann, J., Quaas, M. F., Schmidt, J. O. and Visbeck, M. (2016) Indicators for Monitoring Sustainable Development Goals: An Application to Oceanic Development in the European Union Earth's Future, 4 (5). pp. 252-267. DOI 10.1002/2016EF000353.

Patara, L., Böning, C. W. and Biastoch, A. (2016) Variability and trends in Southern Ocean eddy activity in 1/12° ocean model simulations Geophysical Research Letters, 43 . pp. 4517-4523. DOI 10.1002/2016GL069026.

Gomes, M. P., Vital, H., Stattegger, K. and Schwarzer, K. (2016) Bedrock control on the Assu Incised Valley morphology and sedimentation in the Brazilian Equatorial Shelf International Journal of Sediment Research, 31 (2). pp. 181-193.

Purser, A., Marcon, Y., Hoving, H. J. T., Vecchione, M., Piatkowski, U., Eason, D., Bluhm, H. and Boetius, A. (2016) Association of deep-sea incirrate octopods with manganese crusts and nodule fields in the Pacific Ocean Current Biology, 26 (24). R1268-R1269. DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2016.10.052.

Schwarzer, K., Thanh, N. C. and Ricklefs, K. (2016) Sediment re-deposition in the mangrove environment of Can Gio, Saigon River estuary (Vietnam) Journal of Coastal Research . pp. 138-142.

Wiggins, S. W., Leifer, I., Linke, P. and Hildebrand, J. A. (2015) Long-term acoustic monitoring at North Sea well site 22/4b Marine and Petroleum Geology, 68 . pp. 776-788. DOI 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2015.02.011.

Schroeder, K., Tanhua, T., Bryden, H., Alvarez, M., Chiggiato, J. and Aracri, S. (2015) Mediterranean Sea Ship-based Hydrographic Investigations Program (Med-SHIP) Oceanography, 28 (3). pp. 12-15. DOI 10.5670/oceanog.2015.71.

Arevalo-Martínez, D. L., Kock, A., Löscher, C., Schmitz, R. A. and Bange, H. W. (2015) Massive nitrous oxide emissions from the tropical South Pacific Ocean Nature Geoscience, 8 (7). pp. 530-533. DOI 10.1038/ngeo2469.

Hoving, H. J. T., Laptikhovsky, V. V. and Robison, B. H. (2015) Vampire squid reproductive strategy is unique among coleoid cephalopods Current Biology, 25 (8). R322-R323. DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2015.02.018.

Feldens, P., Diesing, M., Schwarzer, K., Heinrich, C. and Schlenz, B. (2015) Occurrence of flow parallel and flow transverse bedforms in Fehmarn Belt (SW Baltic Sea) related to the local palaeomorphology Geomorphology, 231 . pp. 53-62. DOI 10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.11.021.

Aswathy, N., Boucher, O., Quaas, M., Niemeier, U., Muri, H., Muelmenstaedt, J. and Quaas, J. (2015) Climate extremes in multi-model simulations of stratospheric aerosol and marine cloud brightening climate engineering Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15 (16). pp. 9593-9610.

Blenckner, T., Llope, M., Moellmann, C., Voss, R., Quaas, M., Casini, M., Lindegren, M., Folke, C. and Stenseth, N. C. (2015) Climate and fishing steer ecosystem regeneration to uncertain economic futures Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 282 (1803).

Rocha, C., Wilson, J., Scholten, J. and Schubert, M. (2015) Retention and fate of groundwater-borne nitrogen in a coastal bay (Kinvara Bay, Western Ireland) during summer Biogeochemistry, 125 (2). p. 301.

Sakuna-Schwartz, D., Feldens, P., Schwarzer, K., Khokiattiwong, S. and Stattegger, K. (2015) Internal structure of event layers preserved on the Andaman Sea continental shelf, Thailand: tsunami vs. storm and flash-flood deposits Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 15 (6). pp. 1181-1199.

Scott, R., Biastoch, A., Roder, C., Stiebens, V. and Eizaguirre, C. (2014) Nano-tags for neonates and ocean-mediated swimming behaviours linked to rapid dispersal of hatchling sea turtles Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 281 (1796). p. 20141209. DOI 10.1098/rspb.2014.1209.

Visbeck, M., Kronfeld-Goharani, U., Neumann, B., Rickels, W., Schmidt, J., van Doorn, E., Matz-Lück, N., Ott, K. and Quaas, M. (2014) Securing Blue Wealth: The Need for a Special Sustainable Development Goal for the Ocean and Coasts Marine Policy, 48 . pp. 184-191. DOI 10.1016/j.marpol.2014.03.005.

Patara, L. and Böning, C. W. (2014) Abyssal ocean warming around Antarctica strengthens the Atlantic overturning circulation Geophysical Research Letters, 41 (11). pp. 3972-3978. DOI 10.1002/2014GL059923.

Hoving, H. J. T., Perez, J. A. A., Bolstad, K. S. R., Braid, H. E., Evans, A. B., Fuchs, D., Judkins, H., Kelly, J. T., Marian, J. E. A. R., Nakajima, R., Piatkowski, U., Reid, A., Vecchione, M. and Xavier, J. C. C. (2014) The Study of Deep-Sea Cephalopods Advances in Marine Biology, 67 . pp. 235-359. DOI 10.1016/B978-0-12-800287-2.00003-2.

Rickels, W., Quaas, M. and Visbeck, M. (2014) How healthy is the human-ocean system? Environmental Research Letters, 9 (4). 044013. DOI 10.1088/1748-9326/9/4/044013.

Jakoby, O., Quaas, M., Mueller, B., Baumgaetner, S. and Frank, K. (2014) How do individual farmers' objectives influence the evaluation of rangeland management strategies under a variable climate? Journal of Applied Ecology, 51 (2). pp. 483-493.

Lukomska, N., Quaas, M. and Baumgaertner, S. (2014) Bush encroachment control and risk management in semi-arid rangelands Journal of Environmental Management, 145 . pp. 24-34.

Malanotte-Rizzoli, P., Artale, V., Borzelli-Eusebi, G. L., Brenner, S., Crise, A., Gacic, M., Kress, N., Marullo, S., Ribera d'Alcalà, M., Sofianos, S., Tanhua, T., Theocharis, A., Alvarez, M., Ashkenazy, Y., Bergamasco, A., Cardin, V., Carniel, S., Civitarese, G., D'Ortenzio, F., Font, J., Garcia-Ladona, E., Garcia-Lafuente, J. M., Gogou, A., Gregoire, M., Hainbucher, D., Kontoyannis, H., Kovacevic, V., Kraskapoulou, E., Kroskos, G., Incarbona, A., Mazzocchi, M. G., Orlic, M., Ozsoy, E., Pascual, A., Poulain, P. M., Roether, W., Rubino, A., Schroeder, K., Siokou-Frangou, J., Souvermezoglou, E., Sprovieri, M., Tintoré, J. and Triantafyllou, G. (2014) Physical forcing and physical/biochemical variability of the Mediterranean Sea: a review of unresolved issues and directions for future research Ocean Science, 10 (3). pp. 281-322. DOI 10.5194/os-10-281-2014.

Olbrich, R., Quaas, M. and Baumgaertner, S. (2014) Personal Norms of Sustainability and Farm Management Behavior Sustainability, 6 (8). pp. 4990-5017.

Papaioannou, E., Vafeidis, A., Quaas, M., Schmidt, J. and Strehlow, H. V. (2014) Using indicators based on primary fisheries' data for assessing the development of the German Baltic small-scale fishery and reviewing its adaptation potential to changes in resource abundance and management during 2000-09 Ocean & Coastal Management, 98 . pp. 38-50.

Thebaud, O., Innes, J., Doyen, L., Lample, M., Macher, C., Mahevas, S., Mullon, C., Planque, B., Quaas, M., Smith, T. and Vermard, Y. (2014) Building ecological-economic models and scenarios of marine resource systems: Workshop report Marine Policy, 43 . pp. 382-386.

Voss, R., Quaas, M., Schmidt, J. and Hoffmann, J. (2014) Regional trade-offs from multi-species maximum sustainable yield (MMSY) management options Marine Ecology Progress Series, 498 . pp. 1-12.

Voss, R., Quaas, M., Schmidt, J., Tahvonen, O., Lindegren, M. and Moellmann, C. (2014) Assessing Social - Ecological Trade-Offs to Advance Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management PLoS ONE, 9 (9).

Arevalo-Martinez, D. L., Beyer, M., Krumbholz, M., Piller, I., Kock, A., Steinhoff, T., Körtzinger, A. and Bange, H. W. (2013) A new method for continuous measurements of oceanic and atmospheric N2O, CO and CO2: performance of off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) coupled to non-dispersive infrared detection (NDIR) Ocean Science, 9 (6). pp. 1071-1087. DOI 10.5194/os-9-1071-2013.

Prieß, M., Piwonski, J., Koziel, S., Oschlies, A. and Slawig, T. (2013) Accelerated Parameter Identification in a 3D Marine Biogeochemical Model Using Surrogate-Based Optimization Ocean Modelling, 68 . pp. 22-36. DOI 10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.04.003.

Froese, R. and Quaas, M. (2013) Rio+20 and the reform of the Common Fisheries Policy in Europe Marine Policy, 39 . pp. 53-55.

Heinle, A. and Slawig, T. (2013) Impact of parameter choice on the dynamics of NPZD type ecosystem models Ecological Modelling, 267 . pp. 93-101.

Heinle, A. and Slawig, T. (2013) Internal dynamics of NPZD type ecosystem models Ecological Modelling, 254 . pp. 33-42.

Laß, K., Bange, H. W. and Friedrichs, G. (2013) Seasonal signatures in SFG vibrational spectra of the sea surface nanolayer at Boknis Eck Time Series Station (SW Baltic Sea) Biogeosciences (BG), 10 . pp. 5325-5334. DOI 10.5194/bg-10-5325-2013.

Prieß, M., Koziel, S. and Slawig, T. (2013) Marine Ecosystem Model Calibration with Real Data Using Enhanced Surrogate-Based Optimization Journal of Computational Science, 4 (5). pp. 423-437. DOI 10.1016/j.jocs.2013.04.001.

Quaas, M. F., van Soest, D. and Baumgartner, S. (2013) Complementarity, impatience, and the resilience of natural-resource-dependent economies Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 66 (1). pp. 15-32.

Siewertsen, E., Piwonski, J. and Slawig, T. (2013) Porting marine ecosystem model spin-up using transport matrices to GPUs Geoscientific Model Development, 6 (1). pp. 17-28.

Tahvonen, O., Quaas, M., Schmidt, J. and Voss, R. (2013) Optimal Harvesting of an Age-Structured Schooling Fishery Environmental & Resource Economics, 54 (1). pp. 21-39. DOI 10.1007/s10640-012-9579-x.

Tanhua, T., Hainbucher, D., Cardin, V., Álvarez, M. and Civitarese, G. (2013) Repeat hydrography in the Mediterranean Sea, data from the Meteor cruise 84/3 in 2011 Earth System Science Data, 5 . pp. 289-294. DOI 10.5194/essd-5-289-2013.

Appelhans, Y., Thomsen, J., Pansch, C., Melzner, F. and Wahl, M. (2012) Sour times: seawater acidification effects on growth, feeding behaviour and acid–base status of Asterias rubens and Carcinus maenas Marine Ecology Progress Series, 459 . pp. 85-98. DOI 10.3354/meps09697.

Becker, M., Andersen, N., Fiedler, B., Fietzek, P., Körtzinger, A., Steinhoff, T. and Friedrichs, G. (2012) Using cavity ringdown spectroscopy for continuous monitoring of delta C-13(CO2) and fCO(2) in the surface ocean Limnology and Oceanography-Methods, 10 . pp. 752-766.

Becker, M., Andersen, N., Fiedler, B., Fietzek, P., Körtzinger, A., Steinhoff, T. and Friedrichs, G. (2012) Using cavity ringdown spectroscopy for continuous monitoring of δ13C(CO2) and ƒCO2 in the surface ocean Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 10 . pp. 752-766. DOI 10.4319/lom.2012.10.752.

Prieß, M. and Slawig, T. (2012) Aggressive space mapping for optimisation of a marine ecosystem model International Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Optimisation, 3 (1/2). p. 98. DOI 10.1504/IJMMNO.2012.044732.

Prieß, M., Piwonski, J., Koziel, S. and Slawig, T. (2012) Parameter identification in climate models using surrogate-based optimization Journal of Computational Methods in Science and Engineering, 12 (1-2). pp. 47-62. DOI 10.3233/JCM-2012-0403.

Bange, H. W., Hansen, H. P., Malien, F., Laß, K., Dale, A. W., Karstensen, J., Petereit, C. and Friedrichs, G. (2011) Boknis Eck Time Series Station (SW Baltic Sea): Measurements from 1957 to 2010 LOICZ Inprint, 2011 (1). pp. 16-22.

Beal, L. M., De Ruijter, W. P. M., Biastoch, A., Zahn, R., Cronin, M., Hermes, J., Lutjeharms, J., Quartly, G., Tozuka, T., Baker-Yeboah, S., Bornman, T., Cipollini, P., Dijkstra, H., Hall, I., Park, W., Peeters, F., Penven, P., Ridderinkhof, H. and Zinke, J. and SCOR/WCRP/IAPSOWorking Group 136 (2011) On the role of the Agulhas system in ocean circulation and climate Nature, 472 (7344). pp. 429-436. DOI 10.1038/nature09983.

Prieß, M., Koziel, S. and Slawig, T. (2011) Surrogate-based optimization of climate model parameters using response correction Journal of Computational Science, 2 (4). pp. 335-344. DOI 10.1016/j.jocs.2011.08.004.