R05: Ocean Sinks

What is the future role of marine carbon sequestration techniques to mitigate climate change?

Ocean Sinks brings together researchers from economics, law, mathematics, biogeochemistry, geosciences, and marine biology to assess the potential and limitations of marine carbon sequestration techniques.


The global ocean is the major natural sink for carbon, nutrients and other biologically active substances. Most of the anthropogenic CO2 will ultimately be removed from the atmosphere and transferred into the oceans to be stored as dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater and particulate organic and inorganic carbon in marine sediments. The uptake rate of atmospheric CO2 is determined by the efficiency of the physical and biological marine carbon pumps transferring CO2 to the ocean’s interior. Climate engineering (CE) approaches have been proposed to stimulate these natural CO2 pumps. They aim at exploiting the vast nutrient inventory of the oceans to sequester additional CO2 as in the form of marine biomass or intend to employ the buffering capacity of seawater to neutralize CO2. Geological formations below the seabed have already been used to dispose CO2 recovered from offshore natural gas production for more than a decade and a large number of new storage sites below the seabed will be opened in the near future to accommodate CO2 from coal-fired plants. Marine CE options and sub-seabed CO2 storage may help to mitigate future climate change but could also amplify ongoing ocean acidification and oxygen loss in the ocean with potentially grave and harmful consequences for marine ecosystems. By combining perspectives of disciplines relevant to the subject, the research topic Ocean Sinks aims for an unbiased assessment of these marine carbon sequestration techniques (MCST ).

Future Ocean provides

  • a comprehensive evaluation of different sub-seabed storage options including enhanced oil and gas recovery and storage in saline aquifers, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep-sea sediments, gas hydrates and oceanic crust. sub-seabed storage of CO2
  • Scientific underpinning of the marine CE options such as artificial upwelling and ocean iron fertilization may stimulate biological CO2 sequestration while the physical and chemical uptake of CO2 in the ocean could be enhanced by dissolving alkaline rocks and minerals in seawater.
  • designing potential global MCST portfolios.


Schartau, M., Wallhead, P., Hemmings, J., Löptien, U., Kriest, I., Krishna, S., Ward, B. A., Slawig, T. and Oschlies, A. (2017) Reviews and syntheses: Parameter identification in marine planktonic ecosystem modelling Biogeosciences (BG), 14 (6). pp. 1647-1701. DOI 10.5194/bg-14-1647-2017.

Zhou, G., Latif, M., Greatbatch, R. J. and Park, W. (2017) State-Dependence of Atmospheric Response to Extratropical North Pacific SST Anomalies Journal of Climate, 30 (2). pp. 509-525. DOI 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0672.1.

Quaas, M., Quaas, J., Rickels, W. and Boucher, O. (2017) Are there reasons against open-ended research into solar radiation management? A model of intergenerational decision-making under uncertainty Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 84 . pp. 1-17. DOI 10.1016/j.jeem.2017.02.002.

Ceballos-Romero, E., Le Moigne, F. A. C., Henson, S., Marsay, C. M., Sanders, R. J., García-Tenorio, R. and Villa-Alfageme, M. (2016) Influence of bloom dynamics on Particle Export Efficiency in the North Atlantic: a comparative study of radioanalytical techniques and sediment traps Marine Chemistry, 186 . pp. 198-210. DOI 10.1016/j.marchem.2016.10.001.

Vehmaa, A., Almen, A. K., Brutemark, A., Paul, A. J., Riebesell, U., Furuhagen, S. and Engström-Öst, J. (2016) Ocean acidification challenges copepod phenotypic plasticity Biogeosciences (BG), 13 (22). pp. 6171-6182. DOI 10.5194/bg-13-6171-2016.

Wu, B., Wiese, J., Schmaljohann, R. and Imhoff, J. F. (2016) Biscogniauxone, a New Isopyrrolonaphthoquinone Compound from the Fungus Biscogniauxia mediterranea Isolated from Deep-Sea Sediments Marine Drugs, 14 (11). Art. No. 204.

Ehlert, C., Doering, K., Wallmann, K., Scholz, F., Sommer, S., Grasse, P., Geilert, S. and Frank, M. (2016) Stable silicon isotope signatures of marine pore waters – Biogenic opal dissolution versus authigenic clay mineral formation Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 191 . pp. 102-117. DOI 10.1016/j.gca.2016.07.022.

Tanhua, T., Hoppema, M., Jones, E. M., Stöven, T., Hauck, J., Davila, M. G., Santana-Casiano, M., Alvarez, M. and Strass, V. H. (2016) Temporal changes in ventilation and the carbonate system in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography . DOI 10.1016/j.dsr2.2016.10.004.

Park, T., Park, W. and Latif, M. (2016) Correcting North Atlantic Sea Surface Salinity Biases in the Kiel Climate Model: Influences on Ocean Circulation and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability Climate Dynamics, 47 (7). pp. 2543-2560. DOI 10.1007/s00382-016-2982-1.

Dale, A. W., Boyle, R. A., Lenton, T. M., Ingall, E. D. and Wallmann, K. (2016) A model for microbial phosphorus cycling in bioturbated marine sediments: Significance for phosphorus burial in the early Paleozoic Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 189 . pp. 251-268. DOI 10.1016/j.gca.2016.05.046.

Volosciuk, C. D., Maraun, D., Semenov, V. A., Tilinina, N., Gulev, S. K. and Latif, M. (2016) Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe Scientific Reports, 6 (32450). pp. 1-7. DOI 10.1038/srep32450.

Villa-Alfageme, M., de Soto, F. C., Ceballos, E., Giering, S. L. C., Le Moigne, F. A. C., Henson, S., Mas, J. L. and Sanders, R. J. (2016) Geographical, seasonal, and depth variation in sinking particle speeds in the North Atlantic Geophysical Research Letters, 43 (16). pp. 8609-8616. DOI 10.1002/2016GL069233.

Paul, A. J., Achterberg, E. P., Bach, L. T., Boxhammer, T., Czerny, J., Haunost, M., Schulz, K. G., Stuhr, A. and Riebesell, U. (2016) No observed effect of ocean acidification on nitrogen biogeochemistry in a summer Baltic Sea plankton community Biogeosciences (BG), 13 . pp. 3901-3913. DOI 10.5194/bg-13-3901-2016.

Saha, M., Wiese, J., Weinberger, F. and Wahl, M. (2016) Rapid adaptation to controlling new microbial epibionts in the invaded range promotes invasiveness of an exotic seaweed Journal of Ecology, 104 (4). pp. 969-978. DOI 10.1111/1365-2745.12590.

Jegen, M., Avdeeva, A., Berndt, C., Franz, G., Heincke, B., Hölz, S., Neska, A., Marti, A., Planert, L., Chen, J., Kopp, H., Baba, K., Ritter, O., Weckmann, U., Meqbel, N. and Behrmann, J. (2016) 3-D Magnetotelluric Image of Offshore Magmatism at the Walvis Ridge and Rift Basin Tectonophysics, 683 . pp. 98-108. DOI 10.1016/j.tecto.2016.06.016.

Böning, C. W., Behrens, E., Biastoch, A., Getzlaff, K. and Bamber, J. L. (2016) Emerging impact of Greenland meltwater on deepwater formation in the North Atlantic Ocean Nature Geoscience, 9 (7). pp. 523-527. DOI 10.1038/ngeo2740.

Gärtner, A., Wiese, J. and Imhoff, J. F. (2016) Diversity of Micromonospora strains from the deep Mediterranean Sea and their potential to produce bioactive compounds AIMS Microbiology, 2 (2). pp. 205-221. DOI 10.3934/microbiol.2016.2.205.

Dale, A. W., Sommer, S., Lomnitz, U., Bourbonnais, A. and Wallmann, K. (2016) Biological nitrate transport in sediments on the Peruvian margin mitigates benthic sulfide emissions and drives pelagic N loss during stagnation events Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 112 . pp. 123-136. DOI 10.1016/j.dsr.2016.02.013.

Rickels, W., Dovern, J., Hoffmann, J., Quaas, M. F., Schmidt, J. O. and Visbeck, M. (2016) Indicators for Monitoring Sustainable Development Goals: An Application to Oceanic Development in the European Union Earth's Future, 4 (5). pp. 252-267. DOI 10.1002/2016EF000353.

Schneider von Deimling, J., Held, P., Feldens, P. and Wilken, D. (2016) Effects of using inclined parametric echosounding on sub-bottom acoustic imaging and advances in buried object detection Geo-Marine Letters, 36 (2). pp. 113-119. DOI 10.1007/s00367-015-0433-3.

Rovelli, L., Dengler, M., Schmidt, M., Sommer, S., Linke, P. and McGinnis, D. (2016) Thermocline mixing and vertical oxygen fluxes in the stratified central North Sea Biogeosciences (BG), 13 (5). pp. 1609-1620. DOI 10.5194/bg-13-1609-2016.

Lomnitz, U., Sommer, S., Dale, A. W., Löscher, C. R., Noffke, A., Wallmann, K. and Hensen, C. (2016) Benthic phosphorus cycling in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone Biogeosciences (BG), 13 (5). pp. 1367-1386. DOI 10.5194/bg-13-1367-2016.

Dumke, I., Burwicz, E. B., Berndt, C., Klaeschen, D., Feseker, T., Geissler, W. and Sarkar, S. (2016) Gas hydrate distribution and hydrocarbon maturation north of the Knipovich Ridge, western Svalbard margin Journal of Geophysical Research - Solid Earth, 121 (3). pp. 1405-1424. DOI 10.1002/2015JB012083.

Pinero, E., Hensen, C., Haeckel, M., Rottke, W., Fuchs, T. and Wallmann, K. (2016) 3-D numerical modelling of methane hydrate accumulations using PetroMod Marine and Petroleum Geology, 71 . pp. 288-295. DOI 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2015.12.019.

Stöven, T., Tanhua, T., Hoppema, M. and von Appen, W. J. (2016) Transient tracer distributions in the Fram Strait in 2012 and inferred anthropogenic carbon content and transport Ocean Science, 12 . pp. 319-333. DOI 10.5194/os-12-319-2016.

Wallmann, K., Schneider, B. and Sarnthein, M. (2016) Effects of eustatic sea-level change, ocean dynamics, and nutrient utilization on atmospheric pCO2 and seawater composition over the last 130 000 years: a model study Climate of the Past, 12 (2). pp. 339-375. DOI 10.5194/cp-12-339-2016.

Almen, A. K., Vehmaa, A., Brutemark, A., Bach, L. T., Lischka, S., Stuhr, A., Furuhagen, S., Paul, A. J., Bermudez, R., Riebesell, U. and Engström-Öst, J. (2016) Negligible effects of ocean acidification on Eurytemora affinis (Copepoda) offspring production Biogeosciences (BG), 13 (4). pp. 1037-1048. DOI 10.5194/bg-13-1037-2016.

Piwonski, J. and Slawig, T. (2016) The Marine Ecosystem Toolkit for Optimization and Simulation in 3-D - Part 1: Simulation Package v0.3.2 Geoscientific Model Development . pp. 3729-3750. DOI 10.5194/gmd-9-3729-2016 .

Tseng, Y. h., Lin, H., Chen, H. c., Thompson, K., Bentsen, M., Böning, C. W., Bozec, A., Cassou, C., Chassignet, E., Chow, C. H., Danabasoglu, G., Danilov, S., Farneti, R., Fogli, P. G., Fujii, Y., Griffies, S. M., Ilicak, M., Jung, T., Masina, S., Navarra, A., Patara, L., Samuels, B. L., Scheinert, M., Sidorenko, D., Sui, C. H., Tsujino, H., Valcke, S., Voldoire, A., Wang, Q. and Yeager, S. G. (2016) North and equatorial Pacific Ocean circulation in the CORE-II hindcast simulations Ocean Modelling, 104 . pp. 143-170. DOI 10.1016/j.ocemod.2016.06.003.

Wiese, J., Imhoff, J. F., Gulder, T., Labes, A. and Schmaljohann, R. (2016) Marine Fungi as Producers of Benzocoumarins, a New Class of Inhibitors of Glycogen-Synthase-Kinase 3β Marine Drugs, 14 (12). p. 200. DOI 10.3390/md14110200.

Sommer, S., Schmidt, M. and Linke, P. (2015) Continuous inline mapping of a dissolved methane plume at a blowout site in the Central North Sea UK using a membrane inlet mass spectrometer – Water column stratification impedes immediate methane release into the atmosphere Marine and Petroleum Geology, 68 . pp. 766-775. DOI 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2015.08.020.

Jordt, A., Zelenka, C., Schneider von Deimling, J., Koch, R. and Köser, K. (2015) The Bubble Box: Towards an Automated Visual Sensor for 3D Analysis and Characterization of Marine Gas Release Sites Sensors, 15 (12). pp. 30716-30735. DOI 10.3390/s151229825.

Leifer, I., Solomon, E., Schneider von Deimling, J., Rehder, G., Coffin, R. and Linke, P. (2015) The Fate of Bubbles in a Large, Intense Bubble Megaplume for Stratified and Unstratified Water : Numerical Simulations of 22/4b Expedition Field Data Marine and Petroleum Geology, 68 . pp. 806-823. DOI 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2015.07.025.

Vielstädte, L., Karstens, J., Haeckel, M., Schmidt, M., Linke, P., Reimann, S., Liebetrau, V., McGinnis, D. and Wallmann, K. (2015) Quantification of methane emissions at abandoned gas wells in the Central North Sea Marine and Petroleum Geology, 68 . pp. 848-860. DOI 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2015.07.030.

Singh, A., Baer, S. E., Riebesell, U., Martiny, A. C. and Lomas, M. W. (2015) C : N : P stoichiometry at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study station in the North Atlantic Ocean Biogeosciences (BG), 12 (21). pp. 6389-6403. DOI 10.5194/bg-12-6389-2015.

Paul, A. J., Bach, L. T., Schulz, K. G., Boxhammer, T., Czerny, J., Achterberg, E. P., Hellemann, D., Trense, Y., Nausch, M., Sswat, M. and Riebesell, U. (2015) Effect of elevated CO2 on organic matter pools and fluxes in a summer Baltic Sea plankton community Biogeosciences (BG), 12 (20). pp. 6181-6203. DOI 10.5194/bg-12-6181-2015.

Panzer, K., Yilmaz, P., Weiß, M., Reich, L., Richter, M., Wiese, J., Schmaljohann, R., Labes, A., Imhoff, J. F., Glöckner, F. O. and Reich, M. (2015) Identification of Habitat-Specific Biomes of Aquatic Fungal Communities Using a Comprehensive Nearly Full-Length 18S rRNA Dataset Enriched with Contextual Data PLoS ONE, 10 (7). e0134377. DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0134377.

Stolpovsky, K., Dale, A. W. and Wallmann, K. (2015) Towards a parameterization of global-scale organic carbon mineralization kinetics in surface marine sediments Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 29 . pp. 812-829. DOI 10.1002/2015GB005087.

Dale, A. W., Nickelsen, L., Scholz, F., Hensen, C., Oschlies, A. and Wallmann, K. (2015) A revised global estimate of dissolved iron fluxes from marine sediments Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 29 (5). pp. 691-707. DOI 10.1002/2014GB005017.

Schmale, O., Leifer, I., Schneider von Deimling, J., Stolle, C., Krause, S., Kießlich, K., Fram, A. and Treude, T. (2015) Bubble transport Mechanism: Indications for a gas bubble-mediated inoculation of benthic methanothrophs into the water column Continental Shelf Research, 103 . pp. 70-78. DOI 10.1016/j.csr.2015.04.022.

Rovelli, L., Attard, K. M., Bryant, L. D., Flögel, S., Stahl, H. J., Roberts, M., Linke, P. and Glud, R. N. (2015) Benthic O2 uptake of two cold-water coral communities estimated with the non-invasive eddy-correlation technique Marine Ecology Progress Series, 525 . pp. 97-104. DOI 10.3354/meps11211.

Dale, A. W., Sommer, S., Lomnitz, U., Montes, I., Treude, T., Liebetrau, V., Gier, J., Hensen, C., Dengler, M., Stolpovsky, K., Bryant, L. D. and Wallmann, K. (2015) Organic carbon production, mineralization and preservation on the Peruvian margin Biogeosciences (BG), 12 . pp. 1537-1559. DOI 10.5194/bg-12-1537-2015.

Aswathy, N., Boucher, O., Quaas, M., Niemeier, U., Muri, H., Muelmenstaedt, J. and Quaas, J. (2015) Climate extremes in multi-model simulations of stratospheric aerosol and marine cloud brightening climate engineering Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15 (16). pp. 9593-9610.

Benisch, K., Koehn, D., Al Hagrey, S. A., Rabbel, W. and Bauer, S. (2015) A combined seismic and geoelectrical monitoring approach for CO2 storage using a synthetic field site Environmental Earth Sciences, 73 (7). pp. 3077-3094.

Blenckner, T., Llope, M., Moellmann, C., Voss, R., Quaas, M., Casini, M., Lindegren, M., Folke, C. and Stenseth, N. C. (2015) Climate and fishing steer ecosystem regeneration to uncertain economic futures Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 282 (1803).

Mawji, E., Schlitzer, R., Masferrer Dodas, E., Abadie, C., Abouchami, W., Anderson, R. F., Baars, O., Bakker, K., Baskaran, M., Bates, N. R., Bluhm, K., Bowie, A., Bown, J., Boye, M., Boyle, E. A., Branellec, P., Bruland, K. W., Brzezinski, M. A., Bucciarelli, E., Buesseler, K., Butler, E., Cai, P., Cardinal, D., Casciotti, K., Chaves, J., Cheng, H., Chever, F., Church, T. M., Colman, A. S., Conway, T. M., Croot, P., Cutter, G. A., de Baar, H. J. W., de Souza, G. F., Dehairs, F., Deng, F., Dieu, H. T., Dulaquais, G., Echegoyen-Sanz, Y., Edwards, R. L., Fahrbach, E., Fitzsimmons, J., Fleisher, M., Frank, M., Friedrich, J., Fripiat, F., Galer, S. J. G., Gamo, T., Solsona, E. G., Gerringa, L. J. A., Godoy, J. M., Gonzalez, S., Grossteffan, E., Hatta, M., Hayes, C. T., Heller, M., Henderson, G., Huang, K. F., Jeandel, C., Jenkins, W. J., John, S., Kenna, T. C., Klunder, M., Kretschmer, S., Kumamoto, Y., Laan, P., Labatut, M., Lacan, F., Lam, P. J., Lannuzel, D., le Moigne, F., Lechtenfeld, O. J., Lohan, M. C., Lu, Y., Masque, P., McClain, C. R., Measures, C., Middag, R., Moffett, J., Navidad, A., Nishioka, J., Noble, A., Obata, H., Ohnemus, D. C., Owens, S., Planchon, F., Pradoux, C., Puigcorbe, V., Quay, P., Radic, A., Rehkämper, M., Remenyi, T., Rijkenberg, M. J. A., Rintoul, S., Robinson, L. F., Roeske, T., Rosenberg, M., Rutgers van der Loeff, M., Ryabenko, E., Saito, M. A., Roshan, S., Salt, L., Sarthou, G., Schauer, U., Scott, P., Sedwick, P. N., Sha, L., Shiller, A. M., Sigman, D. M., Smethie, W., Smith, G. J., Sohrin, Y., Speich, S., Stichel, T., Stutsman, J., Swift, J. H., Tagliabue, A., Thomas, A., Tsunogai, U., Twining, B. S., van Aken, H. M., Van Heuven, S., van Ooijen, J., van Weerlee, E., Venchiarutti, C., Voelker, A. H. L., Wake, B., Warner, M. J., Woodward, E. M. S., Wu, J., Wyatt, N., Yoshikawa, H., Zheng, X. Y., Xue, Z., Zieringer, M. and Zimmer, L. A. (2015) The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2014 Marine Chemistry, 177 . pp. 1-8. DOI 10.1016/j.marchem.2015.04.005.

Rovelli, L., Sommer, S., Bryant, L. D., Kriwanek, S. and Linke, P. (Submitted) Influence of variable seep sediments and bottom-water hydrodynamics on oxygen fluxes at the sediment-water interface Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans .

McGinnis, D., Sommer, S., Lorke, A., Glud, R. N. and Linke, P. (2014) Quantifying tidally-driven benthic oxygen exchange across permeable sediments: An aquatic eddy correlation study Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, 119 (10). pp. 6918-6932. DOI 10.1002/2014JC010303.

Karaca, D., Schleicher, T., Hensen, C., Linke, P. and Wallmann, K. (2014) Quantification of methane emission from bacterial mat sites at Quepos Slide offshore Costa Rica International Journal of Earth Sciences, 103 (7). pp. 1817-1829. DOI 10.1007/s00531-012-0839-3.

Visbeck, M., Kronfeld-Goharani, U., Neumann, B., Rickels, W., Schmidt, J., van Doorn, E., Matz-Lück, N., Ott, K. and Quaas, M. (2014) Securing Blue Wealth: The Need for a Special Sustainable Development Goal for the Ocean and Coasts Marine Policy, 48 . pp. 184-191. DOI 10.1016/j.marpol.2014.03.005.

Dale, A. W., Sommer, S., Ryabenko, E., Noffke, A., Bohlen, L., Wallmann, K., Stolpovsky, K., Greinert, J. and Pfannkuche, O. (2014) Benthic nitrogen fluxes and fractionation of nitrate in the Mauritanian oxygen minimum zone (Eastern Tropical North Atlantic) Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 134 . pp. 234-256. DOI 10.1016/j.gca.2014.02.026.

Rickels, W., Quaas, M. and Visbeck, M. (2014) How healthy is the human-ocean system? Environmental Research Letters, 9 (4). 044013. DOI 10.1088/1748-9326/9/4/044013.

Dumke, I., Berndt, C., Crutchley, G. J., Krause, S., Liebetrau, V., Gay, A. and Couillard, M. (2014) Seal bypass at the Giant Gjallar Vent (Norwegian Sea): indications for a new phase of fluid venting at a 56-Ma-old fluid migration system Marine Geology, 351 . pp. 38-52. DOI 10.1016/j.margeo.2014.03.006.

Wallmann, K. (2014) Is late Quaternary climate change governed by self-sustained oscillations in atmospheric CO2? Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 132 . pp. 413-439. DOI 10.1016/j.gca.2013.10.046.

Pansch, C., Schaub, I., Havenhand, J. and Wahl, M. (2014) Habitat traits and food availability determine the response of marine invertebrates to ocean acidification Global Change Biology, 20 (3). pp. 765-777. DOI 10.1111/gcb.12478.

Vollstaedt, H., Eisenhauer, A., Wallmann, K., Böhm, F., Fietzke, J., Liebetrau, V., Krabbenhöft, A., Farkaš, J., Tomašových, A., Raddatz, J. and Veizer, J. (2014) The Phanerozoic δ88/86Sr Record of Seawater: New Constraints on Past Changes in Oceanic Carbonate Fluxes Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 128 . pp. 249-265. DOI 10.1016/j.gca.2013.10.006.

Bahr, G. and Requate, T. (2014) Reciprocity and Giving in a Consecutive Three-Person Dictator Game with Social Interaction German Economic Review, 15 (3). pp. 374-392.

Doepke, L. K. and Requate, T. (2014) The economics of exploiting gas hydrates Energy Economics, 42 . pp. 355-364.

Dovern, J., Quaas, M. and Rickels, W. (2014) A comprehensive wealth index for cities in Germany Ecological Indicators, 41 . pp. 79-86.

Foligne, B., Bang, C., Weidenbach, K., Gutsmann, T., Heine, H. and Schmitz, R. A. (2014) The Intestinal Archaea Methanosphaera stadtmanae and Methanobrevibacter smithii Activate Human Dendritic Cells PLoS ONE, 9 (6). e99411. DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0099411.

Jakoby, O., Quaas, M., Mueller, B., Baumgaetner, S. and Frank, K. (2014) How do individual farmers' objectives influence the evaluation of rangeland management strategies under a variable climate? Journal of Applied Ecology, 51 (2). pp. 483-493.

Loy, J. P., Glauben, T., Requate, T. and Weiss, C. R. (2014) A Sealed-bid Double Auction Experiment on German Milk Quota Exchanges Journal of Agricultural Economics, 65 (2). pp. 420-445.

Lukomska, N., Quaas, M. and Baumgaertner, S. (2014) Bush encroachment control and risk management in semi-arid rangelands Journal of Environmental Management, 145 . pp. 24-34.

Normann, H. T., Requate, T. and Waichman, I. (2014) Do short-term laboratory experiments provide valid descriptions of long-term economic interactions? A study of Cournot markets Experimental Economics, 17 (3). pp. 371-390.

Olbrich, R., Quaas, M. and Baumgaertner, S. (2014) Personal Norms of Sustainability and Farm Management Behavior Sustainability, 6 (8). pp. 4990-5017.

Papaioannou, E., Vafeidis, A., Quaas, M., Schmidt, J. and Strehlow, H. V. (2014) Using indicators based on primary fisheries' data for assessing the development of the German Baltic small-scale fishery and reviewing its adaptation potential to changes in resource abundance and management during 2000-09 Ocean & Coastal Management, 98 . pp. 38-50.

Thebaud, O., Innes, J., Doyen, L., Lample, M., Macher, C., Mahevas, S., Mullon, C., Planque, B., Quaas, M., Smith, T. and Vermard, Y. (2014) Building ecological-economic models and scenarios of marine resource systems: Workshop report Marine Policy, 43 . pp. 382-386.

Voss, R., Quaas, M., Schmidt, J. and Hoffmann, J. (2014) Regional trade-offs from multi-species maximum sustainable yield (MMSY) management options Marine Ecology Progress Series, 498 . pp. 1-12.

Voss, R., Quaas, M., Schmidt, J., Tahvonen, O., Lindegren, M. and Moellmann, C. (2014) Assessing Social - Ecological Trade-Offs to Advance Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management PLoS ONE, 9 (9).

Waichman, I., Requate, T. and Siang, C. K. (2014) Communication in Cournot competition: An experimental study Journal of Economic Psychology, 42 . pp. 1-16.

Prieß, M., Piwonski, J., Koziel, S., Oschlies, A. and Slawig, T. (2013) Accelerated Parameter Identification in a 3D Marine Biogeochemical Model Using Surrogate-Based Optimization Ocean Modelling, 68 . pp. 22-36. DOI 10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.04.003.

Dale, A. W., Bertics, V. J., Treude, T., Sommer, S. and Wallmann, K. (2013) Modeling benthic–pelagic nutrient exchange processes and porewater distributions in a seasonally hypoxic sediment: evidence for massive phosphate release by Beggiatoa? Biogeosciences (BG), 10 (2). pp. 629-651. DOI 10.5194/bg-10-629-2013.

Chuang, P. C., Dale, A. W., Wallmann, K., Haeckel, M., Yang, T. F., Chen, N. C., Chen, H. C., Chen, H. W., Lin, S., Sun, C. H., You, C. F., Horng, C. S., Wang, Y. and Chung, S. H. (2013) Relating sulfate and methane dynamics to geology: Accretionary prism offshore SW Taiwan Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 14 (7). pp. 2523-2545. DOI 10.1002/ggge.20168.

Froese, R. and Quaas, M. (2013) Rio+20 and the reform of the Common Fisheries Policy in Europe Marine Policy, 39 . pp. 53-55.

Heinle, A. and Slawig, T. (2013) Impact of parameter choice on the dynamics of NPZD type ecosystem models Ecological Modelling, 267 . pp. 93-101.

Heinle, A. and Slawig, T. (2013) Internal dynamics of NPZD type ecosystem models Ecological Modelling, 254 . pp. 33-42.

Heinle, A. and Slawig, T. (2013) Theoretical analysis and optimization of nonlinear ODE systems for marine ecosystem models System Modelling and Optimization . pp. 501-510. DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-36062-6_50.

Khatiwala, S., Tanhua, T., Fletcher, S. M., Gerber, M., Doney, S. C., Graven, H. D., Gruber, N., McKinley, G. A., Murata, A., Ríos, A. F. and Sabine, C. L. (2013) Global ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon Biogeosciences (BG), 10 (4). pp. 2169-2191. DOI 10.5194/bg-10-2169-2013.

Niemann, H., Linke, P., Knittel, K., MacPherson, E., Boetius, A., Brückmann, W., Larvid, G., Wallmann, K., Schacht, U., Omoregie, E., Hilton, D., Brown, K. and Rehder, G. (2013) Methane-carbon flow into the benthic food web at cold seeps – a case study from the Costa Rica subduction zone PLoS ONE, 8 (10). e74894. DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0074894.

Pansch, C., Nasrolahi, A., Appelhans, Y. and Wahl, M. (2013) Tolerance of juvenile barnacles (Amphibalanus improvisus) to warming and elevated pCO2 Marine Biology, 160 (8). pp. 2023-2035. DOI 10.1007/s00227-012-2069-4.

Pinero, E., Marquardt, M., Hensen, C., Haeckel, M. and Wallmann, K. (2013) Estimation of the global inventory of methane hydrates in marine sediments using transfer functions Biogeosciences (BG), 10 (2). pp. 959-975. DOI 10.5194/bg-10-959-2013.

Prieß, M., Koziel, S. and Slawig, T. (2013) Marine Ecosystem Model Calibration with Real Data Using Enhanced Surrogate-Based Optimization Journal of Computational Science, 4 (5). pp. 423-437. DOI 10.1016/j.jocs.2013.04.001.

Quaas, M. F., van Soest, D. and Baumgartner, S. (2013) Complementarity, impatience, and the resilience of natural-resource-dependent economies Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 66 (1). pp. 15-32.

Sarnthein, M., Schneider, B. and Grootes, P. (2013) Peak glacial 14C ventilation ages suggest major draw-down of carbon into the abyssal ocean Climate of the Past, 9 (6). pp. 2595-2614. DOI 10.5194/cp-9-2595-2013.

Siewertsen, E., Piwonski, J. and Slawig, T. (2013) Porting marine ecosystem model spin-up using transport matrices to GPUs Geoscientific Model Development, 6 (1). pp. 17-28.

Tahvonen, O., Quaas, M., Schmidt, J. and Voss, R. (2013) Optimal Harvesting of an Age-Structured Schooling Fishery Environmental & Resource Economics, 54 (1). pp. 21-39. DOI 10.1007/s10640-012-9579-x.

Tanhua, T., Bates, N. and Körtzinger, A. (2013) The Marine Carbon Cycle and Ocean Carbon Inventories In: Ocean Circulation and Climate ‒ A 21st Century Perspective , ed. by Siedler, G., Griffies, S. M., Gould, J. and Church, J. A.. Academic Pr., London, pp. 787-815. 2. ISBN 978-0-12-391851-2

Siewertsen, E., Piwonski, J. and Slawig, T. (2012) Simulation von biogeochemischen Prozessen in 3-D auf GPUs (Bachelor thesis), Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, SH, Germany, 33 pp.

Appelhans, Y., Thomsen, J., Pansch, C., Melzner, F. and Wahl, M. (2012) Sour times: seawater acidification effects on growth, feeding behaviour and acid–base status of Asterias rubens and Carcinus maenas Marine Ecology Progress Series, 459 . pp. 85-98. DOI 10.3354/meps09697.

Bohlen, L., Dale, A. W. and Wallmann, K. (2012) Simple transfer functions for calculating benthic fixed nitrogen losses and C:N:P regeneration ratios in global biogeochemical models Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 26 (GB3029). DOI 10.1029/2011GB004198.

Dale, A. W., Meyers, S. R., Aguilera, D. R., Arndt, S. and Wallmann, K. (2012) Controls on organic carbon and molybdenum accumulation in Cretaceous marine sediments from the Cenomanian–Turonian interval including Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 Chemical Geology, 324-325 . pp. 28-45. DOI 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.10.004.

Hiebenthal, C., Philipp, E. E. R., Eisenhauer, A. and Wahl, M. (2012) Interactive effects of temperature and salinity on shell formation and general condition in Baltic Sea Mytilus edulis and Arctica islandica Aquatic Biology, 14 (3). pp. 289-298. DOI 10.3354/ab00405.

McGrath, T., Kivimäe, C., Tanhua, T., Cave, R. R. and McGovern, E. (2012) Inorganic carbon and pH levels in the Rockall Trough 1991–2010 Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 68 . pp. 79-91. DOI 10.1016/j.dsr.2012.05.011.

Noffke, A., Hensen, C., Sommer, S., Scholz, F., Bohlen, L., Mosch, T., Graco, M. and Wallmann, K. (2012) Benthic iron and phosphorus fluxes across the Peruvian oxigen minimum zone Limnology and Oceanography, 57 (3). pp. 851-867. DOI 10.4319/lo.2012.57.3.0851.

Prieß, M. and Slawig, T. (2012) Aggressive space mapping for optimisation of a marine ecosystem model International Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Optimisation, 3 (1/2). p. 98. DOI 10.1504/IJMMNO.2012.044732.

Prieß, M., Piwonski, J., Koziel, S. and Slawig, T. (2012) Parameter identification in climate models using surrogate-based optimization Journal of Computational Methods in Science and Engineering, 12 (1-2). pp. 47-62. DOI 10.3233/JCM-2012-0403.

Wallmann, K., Pinero, E., Burwicz, E., Haeckel, M., Hensen, C., Dale, A. W. and Ruepke, L. (2012) The Global Inventory of Methane Hydrate in Marine Sediments: A Theoretical Approach Energies, 5 (7). pp. 2449-2498. DOI 10.3390/en5072449.

Lee, K., Sabine, C. L., Tanhua, T., Kim, T. W., Feely, R. A. and Kim, H. C. (2011) Roles of marginal seas in absorbing and storing fossil fuel CO(2) Energy & Environmental Science, 4 (4). pp. 1133-1146. DOI 10.1039/c0ee00663g.

Prieß, M., Koziel, S. and Slawig, T. (2011) Surrogate-based optimization of climate model parameters using response correction Journal of Computational Science, 2 (4). pp. 335-344. DOI 10.1016/j.jocs.2011.08.004.

Álvarez, M., Tanhua, T., Brix, H., Lo Monaco, C., Metzl, N., McDonagh, E. L. and Bryden, H. L. (2011) Decadal biogeochemical changes in the subtropical Indian Ocean associated with Subantarctic Mode Water Journal of Geophysical Research, 116 (C9). C09016. DOI 10.1029/2010JC006475.

Anderson, L. G., Tanhua, T., Björk, G., Hjalmarsson, S., Jones, E. P., Jutterström, S., Rudels, B., Swift, J. H. and Wåhlstöm, I. (2010) Arctic ocean shelf-basin interaction: An active continental shelf CO2 pump and its impact on the degree of calcium carbonate solubility Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 57 (7). pp. 869-879. DOI 10.1016/j.dsr.2010.03.012.

Sabine, C. L. and Tanhua, T. (2010) Estimation of Anthropogenic CO2 Inventories in the Ocean Annual Review of Marine Science, 2 . pp. 269-292. DOI 10.1146/annurev-marine-120308-080947.

Schneider, A., Tanhua, T., Körtzinger, A. and Wallace, D. W. R. (2010) High anthropogenic carbon content in the eastern Mediterranean Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, 115 (C12). DOI 10.1029/2010JC006171.