R02: Ocean Governance

How can rules of environmental liability law be implemented in the international setting and which revisions are required to sovereign rights in exclusive economic zones (EEZs)?

Ocean Governance brings together researchers from the disciplines of law, economics, political sciences, philosophy, geography and natural marine sciences to evaluate existing and propose new approaches to governing the ocean towards sustainability.


Existing approaches to governing the oceans have largely failed. One example is the overfishing problem. According to FAO (2011), the state of the world’s marine fish stocks is worse than ever: Almost a third of all stocks are overexploited or depleted, imposing a threat to marine biodiversity and the functioning of marine ecosystems. New problems, such as CO2 storage in the ocean or climate engineering, are also not sufficiently handled by existing frameworks and thus require completely new governance approaches, too. Furthermore, all of these international issues lack a clear assignment of responsibility to an authority, institution, or person. Different players impact the ocean, including States, international organizations, private businesses and individual citizens.

A major challenge is the growing interconnectedness of both differing societies in the world and the issues that States and civil societies have to deal with. Therefore, regulation at different levels (international treaties, EU law, national law, ‘soft law’ such as codes of good practice, contracts between private parties or with the State, or discussion processes) has to be coordinated. We focus on broad approaches of governing the ocean towards sustainability, which assign responsibility for the sustainable use of the oceans to specific entities.



Quaas, M., Quaas, J., Rickels, W. and Boucher, O. (2017) Are there reasons against open-ended research into solar radiation management? A model of intergenerational decision-making under uncertainty Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 84 . pp. 1-17. DOI 10.1016/j.jeem.2017.02.002.

Froese, R., Winker, H., Gascuel, D., Sumaila, U. R. and Pauly, D. (2016) Minimizing the Impact of Fishing Fish and Fisheries, 17 (3). pp. 785-802. DOI 10.1111/faf.12146.

Opitz, S., Hoffmann, J., Quaas, M., Matz-Lück, N., Binohlan, C. and Froese, R. (2016) Assessment of MSC-certified fish stocks in the Northeast Atlantic Marine Policy, 71 . pp. 10-14. DOI 10.1016/j.marpol.2016.05.003.

Froese, R., Walters, C., Pauly, D., Winker, H., Weyl, O. L. F., Demirel, N., Tsikliras, A. C. and Holt, S. J. (2016) A critique of the balanced harvesting approach to fishing ICES Journal of Marine Science, 73 (6). pp. 1640-1650. DOI 10.1093/icesjms/fsv122.

Rickels, W., Dovern, J., Hoffmann, J., Quaas, M. F., Schmidt, J. O. and Visbeck, M. (2016) Indicators for Monitoring Sustainable Development Goals: An Application to Oceanic Development in the European Union Earth's Future, 4 (5). pp. 252-267. DOI 10.1002/2016EF000353.

Froese, R., Coro, G., Kleisner, K. and Demirel, N. (2016) Revisiting Safe Biological Limits in Fisheries Fish and Fisheries, 17 (1). pp. 193-209. DOI 10.1111/faf.12102.

Dumke, I., Burwicz, E. B., Berndt, C., Klaeschen, D., Feseker, T., Geissler, W. and Sarkar, S. (2016) Gas hydrate distribution and hydrocarbon maturation north of the Knipovich Ridge, western Svalbard margin Journal of Geophysical Research - Solid Earth, 121 (3). pp. 1405-1424. DOI 10.1002/2015JB012083.

Bertram, C. and Quaas, M. (2016) Biodiversity and Optimal Multi-species Ecosystem Management Environmental and Resource Economics . pp. 1-30. DOI 10.1007/s10640-015-9988-8.

Quaas, M., Reusch, T. B. H., Schmidt, J., Tahvonen, O. and Voss, R. (2016) It is the economy, stupid! Projecting the fate of fish populations using ecological-economic modeling Global Change Biology, 22 (1). pp. 264-270. DOI 10.1111/gcb.13060.

Hoffmann, J. and Quaas, M. (2016) Common Pool Politics and Inefficient Fishery Management Environmental and Resource Economics, 63 (1). pp. 79-93. DOI 10.1007/s10640-014-9842-4.

Groeneveld, R. A. and Quaas, M. F. (2016) Promoting selective fisheries through certification? An analysis of the PNA unassociated-sets purse seine fishery Fisheries Research, 182 . pp. 69-78.

Quaas, J., Quaas, M., Boucher, O. and Rickels, W. (2016) Regional climate engineering by radiation management: Prerequisites and prospects Earth's Future, 4 (12). pp. 618-625. DOI 10.1002/2016EF000440.

Rickels, W., Dovern, J. and Quaas, M. (2016) Beyond fisheries: Common-pool resource problems in oceanic resources and services Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions, 40 . pp. 37-49. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.06.013.

Matz-Lück, N. and Fuchs, J. (2015) Marine Living Resources In: Oxford Handbook on the Law of the Sea . Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 491-515. ISBN 9780198715481

Aswathy, N., Boucher, O., Quaas, M., Niemeier, U., Muri, H., Muelmenstaedt, J. and Quaas, J. (2015) Climate extremes in multi-model simulations of stratospheric aerosol and marine cloud brightening climate engineering Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15 (16). pp. 9593-9610.

Blenckner, T., Llope, M., Moellmann, C., Voss, R., Quaas, M., Casini, M., Lindegren, M., Folke, C. and Stenseth, N. C. (2015) Climate and fishing steer ecosystem regeneration to uncertain economic futures Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 282 (1803).

Froese, R., Demirel, N. and Sampang, A. (2015) An overall indicator for the good environmental status of marine waters based on commercially exploited species Marine Policy, 51 . pp. 230-237. DOI 10.1016/j.marpol.2014.07.012.

Voss, R., Quaas, M., Schmidt, J. O. and Kapaun, U. (2015) Ocean Acidification May Aggravate Social-Ecological Trade-Offs in Coastal Fisheries Plos One, 10 (3).

Visbeck, M., Kronfeld-Goharani, U., Neumann, B., Rickels, W., Schmidt, J., van Doorn, E., Matz-Lück, N., Ott, K. and Quaas, M. (2014) Securing Blue Wealth: The Need for a Special Sustainable Development Goal for the Ocean and Coasts Marine Policy, 48 . pp. 184-191. DOI 10.1016/j.marpol.2014.03.005.

Costello, M. J., Appeltans, W., Bailly, N., Berendsohn, W. G., de Jong, Y., Edwards, M., Froese, R., Huettmann, F., Los, W., Mees, J., Segers, H. and Bisby, F. A. (2014) Strategies for the sustainability of online open-access biodiversity databases Biological Conservation, 173 . pp. 155-165. DOI 10.1016/j.biocon.2013.07.042.

Rickels, W., Quaas, M. and Visbeck, M. (2014) How healthy is the human-ocean system? Environmental Research Letters, 9 (4). 044013. DOI 10.1088/1748-9326/9/4/044013.

Dumke, I., Berndt, C., Crutchley, G. J., Krause, S., Liebetrau, V., Gay, A. and Couillard, M. (2014) Seal bypass at the Giant Gjallar Vent (Norwegian Sea): indications for a new phase of fluid venting at a 56-Ma-old fluid migration system Marine Geology, 351 . pp. 38-52. DOI 10.1016/j.margeo.2014.03.006.

Froese, R., Thorson, J. and Reyes Jr., R. B. (2014) A Bayesian approach for estimating length-weight relationships in fishes Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 30 (1). pp. 78-85. DOI 10.1111/jai.12299.

Bahr, G. and Requate, T. (2014) Reciprocity and Giving in a Consecutive Three-Person Dictator Game with Social Interaction German Economic Review, 15 (3). pp. 374-392.

Doepke, L. K. and Requate, T. (2014) The economics of exploiting gas hydrates Energy Economics, 42 . pp. 355-364.

Jakoby, O., Quaas, M., Mueller, B., Baumgaetner, S. and Frank, K. (2014) How do individual farmers' objectives influence the evaluation of rangeland management strategies under a variable climate? Journal of Applied Ecology, 51 (2). pp. 483-493.

Loy, J. P., Glauben, T., Requate, T. and Weiss, C. R. (2014) A Sealed-bid Double Auction Experiment on German Milk Quota Exchanges Journal of Agricultural Economics, 65 (2). pp. 420-445.

Lukomska, N., Quaas, M. and Baumgaertner, S. (2014) Bush encroachment control and risk management in semi-arid rangelands Journal of Environmental Management, 145 . pp. 24-34.

Matz-Lück, N. (2014) Die Einführung nationaler CO2-Abgaben für die internationale Schifffahrt: Völkerrechtliche Möglichkeiten und Grenzen In: Aus Kiel in die Welt: Kiel’s Contribution to International Law: Festschrift zum 100-jährigen Bestehen des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht . Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, pp. 521-547.

Matz-Lück, N. and Fuchs, J. (2014) The impact of OSPAR on protected area management beyond national jurisdiction: Effective regional cooperation or a network of paper parks? Marine Policy, 49 . pp. 155-166.

Normann, H. T., Requate, T. and Waichman, I. (2014) Do short-term laboratory experiments provide valid descriptions of long-term economic interactions? A study of Cournot markets Experimental Economics, 17 (3). pp. 371-390.

Olbrich, R., Quaas, M. and Baumgaertner, S. (2014) Personal Norms of Sustainability and Farm Management Behavior Sustainability, 6 (8). pp. 4990-5017.

Papaioannou, E., Vafeidis, A., Quaas, M., Schmidt, J. and Strehlow, H. V. (2014) Using indicators based on primary fisheries' data for assessing the development of the German Baltic small-scale fishery and reviewing its adaptation potential to changes in resource abundance and management during 2000-09 Ocean & Coastal Management, 98 . pp. 38-50.

Thebaud, O., Innes, J., Doyen, L., Lample, M., Macher, C., Mahevas, S., Mullon, C., Planque, B., Quaas, M., Smith, T. and Vermard, Y. (2014) Building ecological-economic models and scenarios of marine resource systems: Workshop report Marine Policy, 43 . pp. 382-386.

Voss, R., Quaas, M., Schmidt, J. and Hoffmann, J. (2014) Regional trade-offs from multi-species maximum sustainable yield (MMSY) management options Marine Ecology Progress Series, 498 . pp. 1-12.

Voss, R., Quaas, M., Schmidt, J., Tahvonen, O., Lindegren, M. and Moellmann, C. (2014) Assessing Social - Ecological Trade-Offs to Advance Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management PLoS ONE, 9 (9).

Waichman, I., Requate, T. and Siang, C. K. (2014) Communication in Cournot competition: An experimental study Journal of Economic Psychology, 42 . pp. 1-16.

Martell, S. and Froese, R. (2013) A simple method for estimating MSY from catch and resilience Fish and Fisheries, 14 (4). pp. 504-514. DOI 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2012.00485.x.

Fischer, M., Wahl, M. and Friedrichs, G. (2013) Field Sensor for In-Situ Detection Of Marine Bacterial Biofilms : Novel Sensor Concept Enables Time-Resolved Detection of Bacteria from initial attachement to mature cell clusters Sea Technology, 54 (2). pp. 49-52.

Froese, R. and Proelss, A. (2013) Is a stock overfished if it is depleted by overfishing? A response to the rebuttal of Agnew et al. to Froese and Proelss “Evaluation and legal assessment of certified seafood” Marine Policy, 38 . pp. 548-550. DOI 10.1016/j.marpol.2012.07.001.

Froese, R. and Quaas, M. (2013) Rio+20 and the reform of the Common Fisheries Policy in Europe Marine Policy, 39 . pp. 53-55.

Froese, R., Zeller, D., Kleisner, K. and Pauly, D. (2013) Worrisome trends in global stock status continue unabated: a response to a comment by R.M. Cook on "What catch data can tell us about the status of global fisheries" Marine Biology, 160 (9). pp. 2531-2533. DOI 10.1007/s00227-013-2185-9.

Matz-Lück, N. (2013) Cooperation to Protect the Marine Environment in the Mediterranean Sea and the Persian Gulf: A Model for the South China Sea? In: Cooperation and Development in the South China Sea . China Democracy and Legal System Publishing, Beijing, pp. 111-127.

Matz-Lück, N. (2013) „Deepwater Horizon“ und internationale Betreiberhaftung für Ölverschmutzungsschäden durch Offshore-Aktivitäten In: Verantwortlichkeit und Haftung für Umweltschäden . Erich Schmidt Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, pp. 61-72. ISBN 978 3 503 14121 0

Quaas, M. F., van Soest, D. and Baumgartner, S. (2013) Complementarity, impatience, and the resilience of natural-resource-dependent economies Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 66 (1). pp. 15-32.

Schuerch, M., Vafeidis, A. T., Slawig, T. and Temmerman, S. (2013) Modeling the influence of changing storm patterns on the ability of a salt marsh to keep pace with sea level rise Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface, 118 (1). pp. 84-96.

Tahvonen, O., Quaas, M., Schmidt, J. and Voss, R. (2013) Optimal Harvesting of an Age-Structured Schooling Fishery Environmental & Resource Economics, 54 (1). pp. 21-39. DOI 10.1007/s10640-012-9579-x.

Fischer, M., Wahl, M. and Friedrichs, G. (2012) Design and field application of a UV-LED based optical fiber biofilm sensor Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 33 (1). pp. 172-178. DOI 10.1016/j.bios.2011.12.048.

Froese, R. and Proelß, A. (2012) Evaluation and Legal Assessment of Certified Seafood Marine Policy, 36 . pp. 1284-1289. DOI 10.1016/j.marpol.2012.03.017.

Froese, R. and Quaas, M. (2012) Mismanagement of the North Sea cod by the Council of the European Union Ocean & Coastal Management, 70 . pp. 54-58. DOI 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.04.005.

Froese, R., Zeller, D., Kleisner, K. and Pauly, D. (2012) What catch data can tell us about the status of global fisheries Marine Biology, 159 (6). pp. 1283-1292. DOI 10.1007/s00227-012-1909-6.

Kleisner, K., Zeller, D., Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (2012) Using global catch data for inferences on the world's marine fisheries Fish and Fisheries, 14 (3). pp. 293-311. DOI 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2012.00469.x.

Matz-Lück, N. and Fuchs, J. (2012) Die Ausweisung mariner Schutzgebiete in hoheitsfreien Räumen am Beispiel des OSPAR-Abkommens Zeitschrift für Umweltrecht . pp. 532-542.

Norse, E. A., Brooke, S., Cheung, W. W. L., Clark, M. R., Ekeland, I., Froese, R., Gjerde, K. M., Haedrich, R. L., Heppell, S. S., Morato, T., Morgan, L. E., Pauly, D., Sumaila, R. and Watson, R. (2012) Sustainability of deep-sea fisheries Marine Policy, 36 (2). pp. 307-320. DOI 10.1016/j.marpol.2011.06.008.

Pauly, D. and Froese, R. (2012) Comments on FAO's State of Fisheries and Aquaculture, or 'SOFIA 2010' Marine Policy, 36 (3). pp. 746-752. DOI 10.1016/j.marpol.2011.10.021.

Quaas, M. F., Froese, R., Herwartz, H., Requate, T., Schmidt, J. O. and Voss, R. (2012) Fishing industry borrows from natural capital at high shadow interest rates Ecological Economics, 82 . pp. 45-52. DOI 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.08.002.

Villasante, S., Gascuel, D. and Froese, R. (2012) Rebuilding fish stocks and changing fisheries management, a major challenge for the Common Fisheries Policy reform in Europe Ocean & Coastal Management, 70 . pp. 1-3. DOI 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.07.021.

Fricke, H., Hissmann, K., Froese, R., Schauer, J., Plante, R. and Fricke, S. (2011) The population biology of the living coelacanth studied over 21 years Marine Biology, 158 (7). pp. 1511-1522. DOI 10.1007/s00227-011-1667-x.

Froese, R. (2011) Fishery reform slips through the net Nature, 475 (7354). p. 7. DOI 10.1038/475007a.

Froese, R., Branch, T. A., Proelß, A., Quaas, M., Sainsbury, K. and Zimmermann, C. (2011) Generic harvest control rules for European fisheries Fish and Fisheries, 12 (3). pp. 340-351. DOI 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2010.00387.x.